CSO - AGUADO and  CSO- ESPESO
TWO IMPORTANT NEW "OIL OUT " MEDIUMS

The CALCITE SUN OIL METHOD now has four OIL OUT MEDIUMS.
The other two are the " VISCOUS EMULSION" and the " NON VISCOUS EMULSION"
Read the details in my books

AGUADO was developed in July 2009

This expansion of the 2002 creation of the Calcite Sun Oil/ Emulsions method, complements and gives the painter
increased power for painting large sized paintings. It can be used effectively for small sized paintings as well, and
provides the PLEIN AIRE painter a simple effortless procedure.
It does NOT eliminate the use of the CSO/EMULSIONS method as I will explain later.

Both, the
CSO/EMULSIONS and the CSO/AGUADO methods can reach their full potential ONLY if  the SUPERIOR
LINSEED/FLAX OIL of the Old Masters is used. This extraordinary oil can be easily processed by all persons. Please
see my other web pages for full instructions.

WHAT IS AGUADO?
It is an "OIL OUT" mixture. It is NOT a painting medium nor a paint thinner. As ab effective oil out..the cso paint glides
effortlessly on the surface of the support, and stays as placed.

HOW DO YOU MAKE AGUADO?
...   PLEASE SEE MY NEW BOOK COMING IN March 2012 for all the information

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN  THE TWO METHODS -- AGUADO and EMULSIONS?
The early Flemish paintings
by the Van Eycks and others were generally - not always- of small size and on wood
panels. The smooth wood support and the method used... allowed micro-fine details with great versimilitude in the photo
realistic effects. The CSO/EMULSIONS method can duplicate those effects and the wonderful paint quality. This is done
without any use of Driers, Varnishes, Resins or Solvents. It depends in great part on the SUPERIOR oil my book and site
describe. The two EMULSIONS I developed are truly a 'Wonder Medium", and are an integral part of the method.
...READ MORE

The huge Baroque paintings like those of Rubens required an easier method. These are the reasons for the
development of the CSO/AGUADO method.....Speed, Efficiency and Ease.
... READ MORE

The CSO/ AGUADO method could not have been developed WITHOUT first developing the
CALCITE SUN OIL/ EMULSIONS mixtures, the development of its application methods, and proving its value by actual  
painting.
...READ MORE

I am very excited of this breakthrough development. I have painted with it and I am amazed at its power.
Though there are some ratio mixture tests yet to be made, the method is simple and fool proof.
PAINTINGS MADE WITH  CALCITE SUN OIL/ AGUADO

AGUADO = A HISTORY OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
Since the year 2000, when I began this now 9 year trek of the Calcite Sun Oil / Emulsions method, I have never HURRIED, nor even
been concerned with the OUTCOME. Every step , every new DEVELOPMENT, each happened on its own time. After having
painted almost  45 years with TAUBES' resin solvent method I had NO IDEA I was to write a book ,
and less so, on OIL PAINTING WITHOUT Frederic Taubes' SOLVENTS, RESINS, VARNISHES and DRIERS.

NOTHING could have been farther from my mind. YET, now 9 years later, here I sit with a published book focusing precisely on
those important issues. Since 2004, because of my book, many very fine and great artists around the world, are now thinking more
about the oil they use, and about the oil in their tube oil paints, and about the REVOLUTION happing today : OIL PAINTING
WITHOUT HAZARDOUS SOLVENTS  and without the other hazardous materials.

Several times during this long trek, I have said to myself, "I AM FINISHED!". Only to be awaken to the fact that I was NOT finished.
The rest break times were important. I am a slow contemplative type thinking person. I dream concepts at night with answers and
solutions coming slowly during the day.

I HAVE met many fine painters across the globe because they bought my book and through numerous letters we became fast
friends. I have only met a couple who had an axe to grind, but the rest were respectful, gracious and very knowledgeable about oil
painting. Recently, I met Mr.
MAURICIO FERNANDEZ- GUTTIEREZ whose fine paintings can be seen at :  
www.mauriciogallery.com .
This fine painter is a resident of the 450 year old, but modern city of PUEBLA, MEXICO .
During our conversations he brought up one VERY GOOD QUESTION, about the CSO/EMULSIONS method. He asked how it would
be used in large mural sized paintings. Of course he was referring to the method described in my book on the application method
of the ' OIL OUT' with the EMULSION.

MY FIRST RESPONSE was that the Old Masters had WORKSHOPS with working students to do the menial labor. They were in the
business of earning money, and teaching. They hired their finest students to help them complete commissions. Rubens had a huge
WAREHOUSE studio in Antwerp, Belgium. I have seen it inside and out.  The grinding of colors, preparation of paint, preparation of
canvas and panels ...was NOT done by master Rubens...as neither was the grisaille underpainting. OF COURSE there were
paintings he did on his own -and his letters show he offered them at a higher price.

BUT, I TOOK MAURICIO'S comment serious. There is a huge difference--in SIZE--between the small paintings of the Flemish
masters of the 15th century, and those HUGE paintings by the BAROQUE master RUBENS in the 17th century. THIS FACT, led me
to develop an EXPANSION of my original CSO/EMULSIONS method, which uses the EMULSION as the 'OIL OUT". Those who do
not know, this EMULSION must be applied correctly, and the detailed instructions are in my book. The application takes time and
one works on relatively smaller areas. a 30X40 inch painting appears very HUGE with this method. YET, the original
CSO/EMULSIONS method is a method of perfection, allowing the finest detailed work and an ease and CONTROL of the paint not
equaled by the SOLVENT-RESIN methods.

A SECOND THING happened AT THE SAME TIME as Mauricio's question.
THIS was my development of a SIMPLIFIED method to teach HIGH SCHOOL students NON SOLVENT oil painting on a shoestring
budget, WITHOUT THE EMULSION and WITHOUT THE SUPERIOR OIL. The challenge caused me several trials and many errors. I
finally did develop a workable method, it is included in detail in my new book.


INTRODUCING the new, " AGUADO" mixture of oil and chalk.

THE REMAINDER OF THIS ESSAY WILL DESCRIBE THE EXPANSION OF THE CSO/EMULSIONS METHOD.
This advancement can be used by painters who paint LARGE paintings, as it allows speed. Yes, it can also be used in making
small paintings too. HERE IT IS:

1. PREPARATION OF THE SUPPORT:
...READ MORE

2. DRAWING: Drawing can be done wet or dry.
...READ MORE

3. AGUADO OIL OUT= The oil out process serves many important functions.  
...READ MORE

HERE IS HOW TO USE "AGUADO" as the oil out.
USING the superior oil , GRIND the chalk ...READ MORE
LOUIS PAINTS A PORTRAIT WITH THE  CSO/AGUADO METHOD - July 4 and 5 , 2009
This painting is now featured on the new DVD.
Here I show only a couple of photos


SUPPORT: 12 INCH x 12 INCH, 1/2 inch birch plywood. Traditional Rabbit skin glue size, and traditional Rabbit skin glue gesso made with Calcium
Carbonate.
One coat of Size, Two thin coats of gesso. One thin gray coat of Size to seal the ABSORBENT gesso, to render it NON-ABSORBENT. IT is VERY
important to isolate the gesso so it will NOT remove oil from the paint. There is NO NEED to create a MECHANICAL LOCK. If your eyes could for a
moment see at the microscopic level, you would see the gesso is full of cavities. A layer of glue does not fill those cavities as liquids conform to the
shape of their surface.

UNDERDRAW : VELAZQUEZ would not have drawn with a pencil. He drew with the dark paint. I drew the image with pencil. I did not fix it.
I mixed a little VENETIAN RED TUBE PAINT with the AGUADO, to give it a warm color on the GRAY gesso. I brushed the AGUADO mixture on the
surface with a wide brush. I used a rag to wipe it evenly. Excess was removed. This took seconds. INTO THIS wet paint film, I continued the next step.

UNDERPAINT: I believe in leaving BLACK to the finish stage. One gets all the darks one needs by mixing BURNT UMBER and ULTRAMARINE BLUE in
equal amounts. AS with the CSO method, one mixes 50/50 of the CSO with the tube paint. THIS creates a viscous sticky paint. A BRISTLE BRUSH is
needed to underpaint as it easily moves the viscous paint. The viscous paint blends extraordinarily easy, yet the CSO mixture keeps all brushmarks
sharp if not blended. I used this darkpaint to define the image and some shadows.
I mixed what I call a HALF-WHITE. This is a mixture of Titanium Dioxide WHITE TUBE OIL PAINT with enough BURNT UMBER to about a level 3 or 4 on
a VALUE scale [ PURE WHITE is 1 and PURE BLACK is 10]. This HALF-WHITE keeps the white value in check and eliminates the CHALKY white
effect. WITH THIS half white I painted
into the wet paint and created what is known by many names: DEAD COLOR/ MONOTONE/ GRISAILLE. I put in some arrows to show the pencil
drawing. VAN EYCK would have made a detailed pencil drawing and would have carefully INKED it. I draw with loose gestures.
THE SMALL PHOTO shows the loose dark background.

USING VELAZQUEZ technique, I used the brush end to scratch a DOVE will completely cover up the lines..until hundreds of years later-as the oil paint
becomes more translucent..the lines will peek through thin paint.

I used two brushes.
One a 1/4 inch ROUND BRISTLE and the other a thin fine sable.
THE LINES OF THE FEATHER were scratched into the wet paint. Light colored paint applied with the thin sable brush are visible.

AGAIN, THIS IS A DEMONSTRATION, but the underpainting stage is easily done. It is smooth, fast, unhindered. Very little blending is required
because the bristle brush easily blends the viscous CSO PAINT. THIXOTROPY is a wonderful quality. You can see the fine wet LIGHT COLORED
paint lines are painted ON TOP OF the wet DARK PAINT LAYERS. They blend as one wishes. LINES and brushmarks are at your command. You can
leave them sharp or blend them smooth...easily.

THIS WAS THE END OF THE FIRST DAYS WORK. THIS BEGAN AT 11AM and FINISHED ONE HOUR LATER.

THE NEXT DAY - 20 HOURS LATER / AT 8 AM-
I BEGAN TO OVER PAINT IN FULL COLOR.
The paint from the previous day was dry.
This FANTASTIC quality is one of the benefits of the SUPERIOR OIL of the OLD MASTERS . I use no additives to my oil. It certainly helps to paint with
UMBER and ULTRAMARINE BLUE  in the lower stages as these colors are fast drying colors. MIXING the umber with the white helps dry the white
paint- known to be always a slow drying color. THE CSO METHOD is NOT impacted by the FAT ON LEAN principle. The essay above explains why.

EACH OF THE TUBE COLORS was mixed with CSO.
The surface was brushed with AGUADO and wiped evenly.
THE OIL OUT APPLICATION IS EASY .

IN THE SPACE OF one and a half hours,
I finished  the COLOR STAGE , the painting to the right.
The other details show the scratch lines that defined the dove, which are covered. The lines of the branches are left visible on purpose..
THE FINISH STAGE [ not shown here ]
COMES NEXT
It is the hardest yet most rewarding part.  
That of living with the painting, seeing it everyday under normal family conditions. Hearing the comments of others
and, more important seeing ALL THE BAD THINGS I DO NOT LIKE in the painting. Also, IN MY sleep I solution the difficulties of the painting. I am
never in a hurry to FINISH the painting. This stage is where the glazes, the fine details, the corrections are slowly made. It is seemingly never ending.

DURING this stage ,
I RECOMMEND switching to the VISCOUS EGG GLAIR /OIL EMULSIONS as the OIL OUT MEDIUM.

THE AGUADO is 98% TRANSPARENT.
THE VISCOUS EMULSION is 100% TRANSPARENT.
ANOTHER CSO/AGUADO PAINTING
PETER PAUL RUBENS was the most influential painter on VELAZQUEZ' method of painting. In 1628, Rubens visited Madrid for 8
months. On RUBENS' advice, VELAZQUEZ switched to pale colored grounds, leaving behind the mid toned darkish dull red of his
teacher. The pale grounds in combination with VELAZQUEZ' use of calcium carbonate mixtures in his paint created the beauty of his
paint. History records the absolutely incredible number of paintings RUBENS made in those 8 months. It is very clear to me that IT WAS
HIS OIL and his THIXOTROPIC METHOD of application and layering that allowed him to do this. I take nothing away from his prodigious
skill, which I believe is unequalled by anyone...including HALS or VELAZQUEZ.  MY painting below is made with the same
superior FAST
drying oil
RUBENS used, and shows the flowing lines and energy found in RUBENS' work.

Modern science clearly shows RUBENS - like VELAZQUEZ and REMBRANDT- added Calcium Carbonate to his oil paint.
As of this date I am unaware of HOW VELAZQUEZ discovered the use of Calcium Carbonate additives to his paint. It is found in his
earliest works painted after leaving his teacher PACHECO, dated c.1619. I have found no evidence in PACHECO'S book of use of
Calcium Carbonate in the paint.  Science shows Rubens used a mixture like AGUADO.. for his OIL OUT, as well as another mixture
similar to the CSO- VISCOUS EMULSION.


READ MY COMPLETE STUDY OF THE METHODS AND MATERIALS OF PETER PAUL RUBENS
IN MY NEW BOOK:

SOLVENT FREE OIL PAINTING:
Painting with the Old Masters' Van Eyck Secret Medium

THE LION AND THE BIRD
THIS PAINTING IS NOW FEATURED ON THE NEW DVD  "OIL PAINTING WITH CALCITE SUN OIL"

READ THE ENTIRE PROCEDURE ON HOW I PAINTED THIS LION PAINTING.
IT IS IN MY NEW BOOK
"SOLVENT FREE OIL PAINTING
Painting with the Old Masters' Van Eyck Secret Medium"
NOVEMBER 17, 2010
INTRODUCING CSO'S ...  'ESPESO'.
THE NEW  EMULSION OIL OUT MEDIUM FOR OIL PAINTING
RUBENS is quoted as having said, " Everything i touch turns to gold !". YES, he did live a GOLDEN life.
MY STUDY of Rubens' methods and materials has been a RAINBOW and I have found GOLD at its end.

At the conclusion of my filming the upcoming DVD on Rubens, I cleansed and rid my studio of all the Hazardous materials he used. I sat sad
because I was going to miss some of the fine points of his method and materials. BUT, my health is much more important. As I pondered the
loss, I received an INSPIRATION that resulted in my creation of the new OIL OUT MEDIUM, I named..'ESPESO'. Here is the story.

I DEVELOPED THIS WONDERFUL ADVANCEMENT FOR OIL PAINTING AS A RESULT OF MY IN DEPTH STUDY OF RUBENS' OIL PAINTING METHODS AND
MATERIALS. NOW, YOU CAN ACHIEVE RUBENS THIXOTROPY QUICKLY AND WITHOUT THE HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS RUBENS USED.

AS YOU KNOW, I PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED ' AGUADO' TO SERVE AS AN OIL OUT MEDIUM TO BE USED WITH THE CSO METHOD FOR PAINTING
LARGE PAINTINGS. THE AGUADO OIL OUT CREATES A FLUID BASE THAT ALLOWS EASE IN PAINTING LARGE PAINTINGS. INCIDENTALLY, WHILE
WORKING WITH RUBENS' FAST SETTING HAND GROUND PAINT, I FOUND THAT ' AGUADO' WAS A PERFECT PAINT THINNER FOR RUBENS' UNIQUE OIL
PAINT.

AFTER FINISHING MY STUDY OF RUBENS' MATERIALS AND METHODS, I FIRMLY DECIDED TO NEVER AGAIN EXPOSE MY HEALTH TO THE VERY
HAZARDOUS SOLVENT FUMES OF THE INGREDIENTS RUBENS USED. YET, I FELT SAD AT LOSING SOME OF RUBENS' WONDERFUL PAINT
CHARACTERISTICS. THIS CAUSED ME TO REFLECT AND I DEVELOPED,  ' ESPESO'.  THE WORD, ' ESPESO' IS A SPANISH WORD MEANING ' THICK',
THE RUBENS DVD
WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO DO THE FOLLOWING
HOW TO MAKE 'ESPESO'

HOW TO USE ' ESPESO'

WHAT 'ESPESO' WILL DO

SUMMARY OF OIL OUT MEDIUMS
THERE ARE NOW THREE BASIC MEDIUMS THE ARTIST CAN CHOOSE TO USE FOR THE 'OIL OUT '.
EACH WILL ACCOMPLISH A DIFFERENT PURPOSE.
1. THE CSO ' VISCOUS EMULSION: Use this to paint very fine details and micro-fine lines as Van Eyck painted.
The CSO 'Non-Viscous Emulsion' is a slower drying version of the Viscous Emulsion, and is described in my book.
2. THE CSO ' AGUADO' : Use this to paint with a more fluid paint and for large paintings as Velazquez  painted.
3. CSO ' ESPESO' : Use this to paint with MAXIMUM THIXOTROPY as Rubens and Rembrandt painted.

THANK YOU
LOUIS R. VELASQUEZ
11-16-2010 COPYRIGHT 2010
ESPESSO
AN OIL OUT MEDIUM